OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of small cell uterine cervical carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. METHODS: Patient's medical records were reviewed retrospectively who were diagnosed as small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix and were treated at Hanyang University Hospital between 1972 and 1997. RESULTS: Between 1972 and 1997, of 1164 patients who were diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer, there were 10 cases of small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Hanyang University Hospital. The incidence of small cell carcinoma in invasive cervical cancer was 0.9% (10/1164). Of 10 small cell carcinoma, seven(70%) were neuroendocrine types which were identified with several kinds of immunohistochemical stains (Chromogranin, Grimelius, and/or NSE). The age of these 7 patients ranged from 34 to 63 years (mean 49). Two were in stage Ib, 3 in stage lla, I in stage IIIb, and 1 in stage IVb. Patients with stage Ib-IIb (n 5) received 3-5 courses of neoadjuvant VBP chemotherapy (vinblastine, bleomycin and cis-platinum) followed by radical hysterectomy with pelvic and paraaortic node dissection. One IIIb patient was managed with concurrent chemo-radiation(3 cycles of cis-platinum & 5-FU) followed by 6 courses of chemotherapy. One IVb patient was treated by palliative chemotherapy with 8 cycles of VBP chemotherapy. Of 5 paticn(s who underwent surgery, none showed pelvic lymph node metastases. These 7 patients were folk>wed for 8 - 62 months (average: 20 months). During this period, 5 patients died of disease hetween 8 and 62 months later and 2 patients are still alive for 12 (stage Ib) and 26 months (stage Ib), respectively. In the contrary, of 3 patients without neuroendocrine differentiation, who underwent neoadjuvant VBP chemotherapy followed by radical hysterctomy with pelvic and paraaortic node dissetion or concurrent chemo-radiation, two stage IIb patients are still alive for 58 and 74 months, and one IIIb patient died of disease 12 months later. CONCLUSION: In summary, neuroendocrine differentiation seemed to adversely affect the prognosis and longterm survival of small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. So, for this high risk group, more aggressive therapy would be need to improve outcome. However, as the number of patients were small in our study, further study with large number of patients are warranted.