OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of high-risk HPV DNA test using Hybrid Capture System in the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neo- plasia(CIN II, III) from patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASCUS) or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(LGSIL) on referral Papanicolaou smear. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-four patients referred to our hospital with a Papanicolaou smear report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion underwent repeat Papanicolaou smear, cervical colposcopy and directed cervical biopsy. In addition, high-risk human papillomavirus(HPV) test by Hybrid Capture System was done. A comparison of detection rate of the high-grade CIN between positive and negative results of HPV test according to repeat Papanicolaou smear report was done. Biopsy result according to HPV test result in total patients was also compared. RESULTS: HPV of high-risk type was detected in 22 of 54 women(40.7%) by Hybrid Capture System. Prevalence rate of high-risk HPV in no CIN, CIN I, and CIN II, III was 13.6%, 18.2% and 68.2% respectively. As expected, high-risk HPV was detected with greater frequency in relation to increasing severity of CIN. In 18 women, the repeat smear obtained in our clinic was reported as negative. High-risk HPV types were found in 16.7% of theses women. In the HPV-negative women, 40% had CIN II or III confirmed on cervical biopsy. In comparison, 66.7% of those with a positive result of the HPV test had CIN II or III on biopsy(P<0.05). Among the women with ASCUS or LGSIL on repeat smear, there was no significant difference in the frequency of biopsy-proved CIN II or III between positive and negative results of high-risk HPV test. In total patients, the group that had positive results for high-risk HPV showed higher incidence of CIN II or III than group with negative results(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: From these results testing women with Papanicolaou smears showing ASCUS or LGSIL for infection with high-risk HPV types would identify the patients who are at risk for HGSIL or invasive carcinoma and who require aggressive intervention. High-risk HPV DNA test using Hybrid Capture System may be a usefule method in supplement the pitfalls of cervical cytology. This test might also have prgnostic value in the management of patients with cervical intraepithelial lesions.