OBJECTIVES: The TGF-Beta1 (transforming growth factor-Beta1 ), which has been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation in vitro as a growth regulator, has been demonstrated to enhance tumori-genicity in vivo. The proteolytic processes of cancer are thought to be the crucial point in tumor invasion and metastasis, mainly by matrix metalloproteinases.(MMPs) We investigated the serum TGF-Beta1 and MMP-2 levels in patients with cervical cancer in contrast to those of normal, patients with benign myoma, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). And we questioned whether these serum levels are different according to the therapy of cancer or not. METHODS: We measured serum TGF-Beta1, MMP-2 concentrations by ELISA in 34 patients with cervical cancer, as well as 5 normal volunteers, 14 patients with benign myoma and 23 patients with CIN. Especially in 7 patients with cervical cancer, we measured serum TGF-Beta1, MMP-2 levels before and after therapy. RESULTS: The serum TGF-Beta1 levels in patients with cervical lancer(37.8 +/-15.4pg/ml) were significantly lower than those of the patients with CIN(46.2+/-9.2pg/ml)(p<0.05). But there is no differences among the serum MMP-2 levels in the patients with cervical cancers(680.30+/-116.6pg/ml), CIN(715.2+/-150.0pg/ml), and benign myoma(682.4+/-112.5pg/ml)(p>0.05). Patients undergoing cancer therapy did not have different values of serum TCF-Beta1 and MMP-2 levels as those without cancer therapy.(p>0.05) CONCLUSION: So we suggest that serum TGF-Beta1 may be helpful in differential diagnosing cervical cancers from CIN.