OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study were to clarify the significance of PCNA and DNA ploidy as a possible parameter of the prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. STUDY DESIGN: Women with the diagnosis of cervical cancer operated between January 1987, and July 1991, composed the study group(n=35) in this case-control group. Among these 35 patients.In theese patients we chose the patients with complete follow up treatment. Also we employed 7 control paraffin-embedded cervical specimens without any specific pathologic lesions for the comparison. Immunohistochemical staining to identify PCNA was applied to case of paraffin section and PCNA indices was obtained. DNA analysis was done by using flow cytometry and S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy were obtained. RESULT: The results were summarized as follows. 1. S-phase fraction were 20+/-7% in cervical cancer and 16+/-11% in control group. There were no statistical difference. Aneuploid ratio were 26%(9/35) in cervical cancer and 0%(0/7) in control group. There were statistical difference. PCNA indices were 45+/-6% in cervical cancer and 5+/-4% in control group. There were statistical difference. 2. There were no statistical difference in PCNA indices between large cell keratinizing type, and large cell nonkratinizing type of cervical cancer. 3. According to lymph node metastasis, there were no statistical difference in PCNA indices between positive group and negative group.4. According with various pathologic parameters, recurrence rate was hihger in cases of parametrial involvement. 5. The correlation of coefficient was 0.747 between PCNA indices and S-phasd fraction that is a significant relationship.6. According to recurrence, there were no statistical difference in S-phase fraction, aneuploidy and PCNA indices between group of recurrence and no recurrence.7. There were no statistical difference between <20% group nad>20%, group of S-phase, aneuploid and <60%, group and >60%, group of PCNA index in view of recurrence rate. conclusion: That is a significant relationship between S-phase fraction and PCNA indices, But, there are no statictical significance of PCNA indices, DNA ploid and a prognostic factor. So, that is a limitation in PCNA index DNA ploid when it was used as as prognostic parameter of nterine cervical cancer.