OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine whether interactions between polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin and ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 16 (ADAMTS16) genes are associated with the development of premature ovarian failure (POF). METHODS: A total of 75 patients with POF and 196 controls were involved in this study. We used a GoldenGate assay to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify POF-associated polymorphisms and synergistic interactions between polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin and ADAMTS16 genes. RESULTS: Single gene analyses using logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between polymorphisms in the two genes and POF. In the results from interaction analyses, we found seven synergistic interactions between the polymorphisms in thyroglobulin and ADAMTS16, although there was no combination showing p-values lower than the significant threshold using the Bonferroni correction. When the AG genotype was present at the rs853326 missense SNP, the A and G alleles at the tagging SNPs rs16875268 and rs13168665 showed significant interactions (odds ratios=5.318 and 16.2 respectively; 95% confidence intervals, 1.64-17.28 and 2.08-126.4; p=0.0054 and 0.0079). CONCLUSION: Synergistic interactions between polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin and ADAMTS16 genes were associated with an increased risk of POF development in Korean women.