Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a condition in which no oocytes are retrieved after an apparently adequate ovarian response to stimulation and meticulous follicular aspiration. EFS can be classified into 'genuine' and 'false' types according to hCG levels. It is a rare condition of obscure etiology. The existence of genuine EFS has been questioned and is still controversial. The limitation around EFS is that the definition of EFS is obscure. Management of patients with EFS is a challenge to physicians. No single treatment is known to be universally effective. However, patients should be adequately informed regarding the importance of correct hCG administration because improper hCG administration is a common and preventable cause of EFS. EFS is a syndrome that deserves additional study because such investigation could lead to a further understanding of ovarian biology and infertility.