MDS are a heterogeneous and complex group of clonal hematological neoplasms arising from a hematopoietic stem cell, and characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in increased apoptosis in the bone marrow and peripheral cytopenia, which involves one or more lineages. Epigenetic changes are reported as ‘founder’ mutations in the case of MDS. Its incidence in the general population has been reported as five new MDS diagnoses per 100,000 people. It affects men more frequently than it does women, and its incidence increases with age. The diagnostic classification, now in use, is the one of the World Health Organization, revised in August 2016. It recognizes six distinct entities in addition to a provisional entity of childhood. In most of the cases, diagnosis is based on the morphologic quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the peripheral blood and bone marrow using basic hematological techniques. Bone marrow biopsy and flow cytometric immunophenotyping also offer support for further diagnostic elucidation, while cytogenetics and molecular genetics are presently fully integrated into prognostication, treatment processes, and decision-making.