BACKGROUND: The prevalence and genotype distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection vary depending on geographical region and the immunity provided by vaccines. This study aimed to clarify the recent prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV according to age and cervical cytology findings in Korea. METHODS: This study included 18,815 health examinees that underwent cervical cytology and HPV genotyping tests at 16 centers of Korean Association of Health Promotion in 13 cities in Korea, between January 2014 and October 2015. HPV was genotyped by using multiplex PCR (Anyplex II HPV 28, Seegene, Korea), which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR-HPV) and nine low-risk HPVs (LR-HPV). RESULTS: Overall HPV prevalence was 27.8%, with 22.2% HR-HPV and 11.4% LR-HPV. The five most common carcinogens were HPV 52 (3.2%), 58 (2.7%), 16 (2.0%), 56 (1.9%), and 51 (1.8%). The five most common HR-HPVs in normal cytology samples were HPV 53, 68, 70, 52, and 58, while HPV 16, 52, 58, 33, and 31 were prevalent in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). In atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), the prevalence of HR-HPV varied with age; it was highest in those aged <30 yr, declining to a minimum at age 50–59 yr, and then increasing in older women (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and distribution of HR-HPV varied with age and cervical cytology findings. This information would be helpful in the development of cervical cancer prevention policies.