We report two cases of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for recurrent or residual esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) lesions after chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer. Case 1 involved a 64-year-old man who had previously undergone chemoradiotherapy for advanced ESCC and achieved a complete response (CR) for 22 months, until metachronous recurrent superficial ESCC was detected on follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We performed ESD and found no evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Case 2 involved a 59-year-old man who had previously undergone chemoradiotherapy for advanced ESCC. He responded favorably to treatment, and most of the tumor had disappeared on follow-up EGD 4 months later. However, there were two residual superficial esophageal lugol-voiding lesions. We performed ESD, and he had a CR for 32 months thereafter. ESD can be considered a viable treatment option for recurrent or residual superficial ESCC after chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer.