Nerve conduction study (NCS) is an electrophysiological tool to assess the overall function of cranial and peripheral nervous system, therefore NCS has been diagnostically helpful in the identification and characterization of disorders involving nerve roots, peripheral nerves, muscle and neuromuscular junction, and are frequently accompanied by a needle Electromyography. Furthermore, NCS could provide valuable quantitative and qualitative results into neuromuscular function. Usually, motor, sensory, or mixed nerve studies can be performed with using NCS, stimulating the nerves with the recording electrodes placed over a distal muscle, a cutaneous sensory nerve, or the entire mixed nerve, respectively. And these findings of motor, sensory, and mixed nerve studies often show different and distinct patterns of specific abnormalities indicating the neuromuscular disorders. The purpose of this special article is to review the neurophysiologic usefulness of NCS, to outline the technical factors associated with the performance of NCS, and to demonstrate characteristic NCS changes in the setting of various neuromuscular conditions.