BACKGROUND: Association of arterial stiffness and osteoporosis has been previously reported in women. However, this association is still controversial for men. Therefore, we investigated correlation of arterial stiffness and osteoporosis by measuring brachial-ankle (ba) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: We reviewed medical charts of 239 people (women: 128, men: 111) who visited the Health Promotion Center, retrospectively. ba-PWV was measured by automatic wave analyzer. Lumbar spine (L1-L4) BMD and femur BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic syndrome was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) definition. Body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2 was used instead of waist circumference. RESULTS: In Pearson's correlation analysis, PWV and femur BMD (Neck, total) had a significant inverse relationship in men (r=-0.254, P=0.007; r=-0.202, P=0.034). In women, PWV and the L-spine, femur (Neck, total) had a significant inverse relationship. (r=-0.321, P<0.001; r=-0.189, P=0.032; r=-0.177, P=0.046) Age and PWV showed the greatest association in both men and women (r=0.46 P<0.001; r=0.525, P<0.001) In multiple regression analysis, the L-spine BMD and PWV had an independent relationship in women after adjusting for age, metabolic syndrome, BMI, smoking, drinking and exercise. (r=-0.229, P=0.015). No independent association was found between PWV and BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS: The association between arterial stiffness and BMD was confirmed in women. However, this association was not statistically significant for men.