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Restor Dent Endod. 2018 Nov;43(4):e46. English. Original Article.
Bedier MM , Hashem AA , Hassan YM .
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Clinical Pathology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.


This study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of different instrumentation and irrigation techniques using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after root canal inoculation with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis).

Materials and Methods

Mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals of extracted mandibular molars were apically enlarged up to a size 25 hand K-file, then autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The samples were randomly divided into 4 main groups according to the system of instrumentation and irrigation: an XP-endo Shaper (XPS) combined with conventional irrigation (XPS/C) or an XP-endo Finisher (XPF) (XPS/XPF), and iRaCe combined with conventional irrigation (iRaCe/C) or combined with an XPF (iRaCe/XPF). A middle-third sample was taken from each group, and then the bacterial reduction was evaluated using CLSM at a depth of 50 µm inside the dentinal tubules. The ratio of red fluorescence (dead cells) to green-and-red fluorescence (live and dead cells) represented the percentage of bacterial reduction. The data were then statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons across the groups and the Dunn test was used for pairwise comparisons.


The instrumentation and irrigation techniques had a significant effect on bacterial reduction (p < 0.05). The iRaCe/XPF group showed the strongest effect, followed by the XPS/XPF and XPS/C group, while the iRaCe/C group had the weakest effect.


Combining iRaCe with XPF improved its bacterial reduction effect, while combining XPS with XPF did not yield a significant improvement in its ability to reduce bacteria at a depth of 50 µm in the dentinal tubules.

Copyright © 2019. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors.