OBJECTIVES: The internal adaptation of composite restorations with or without resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) was analyzed non-destructively using Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty intact human teeth were used. The specimens were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, the cavities were etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 15 sec. Composite resin was filled into the cavity without adhesive. In group 1, light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji II LC, GC) was applied as a base. The cavities were then etched, bonded, light cured and filled with composites. In group 2, the cavities were then etched, bonded, light cured and filled with composites without base application. They were immersed in a 25% silver nitrate solution. Micro-CT was performed before and after mechanical loading. One-way ANOVA with Duncan analysis was used to compare the internal adaptation between the groups before or after loading. A paired t-test was used to compare internal adaptation before and after mechanical loading. All statistical inferences were made within the 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The silver nitrate solution successfully penetrated into the dentinal tubules from the pulp spaces, and infiltrated into the gap between restoration and pulpal floor. Group 2 showed a lower adaptation than the control group and group 1 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the control group and group 1. For all groups, there was a significant difference between before and after mechanical loading (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The internal adaptation before and after loading was better when composites were bonded to tooth using adhesive than composites based with RMGIC.