A 47-year-old female previously diagnosed with ADPKD visited the hospital due to sudden pain in her upper abdomen and back. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT), and CT angiography identified an esophageal artery pseudoaneurysm and hematoma in the esophagus. Urgent angiography and embolization were performed. After the procedure, CT angiography and positron emission tomography were performed due to differences in blood pressure between the arms. The patient was also found to have Takayasu arteritis and subsequently received outpatient follow-up care. The possible mechanisms that cause vascular abnormalities in ADPKD patients include damaged vascular integrity due to abnormal polycystin expression caused by PKD mutations and connective tissue abnormalities. Further research is needed to confirm these mechanisms, and ADPKD patients should be assessed for vascular abnormalities.