Aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) -344C/T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with serum aldosterone level, urinary aldosterone excretion, blood pressure, and left ventricular size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between CYP11B2 polymorphism and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the Korean population and the association with CYP11B2 polymorphism and cardiovascular morbidity in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Genotyping was performed in 134 control subjects and 271 ESRD patients for CYP11B2 polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction through subsequent cleavage with restriction enzyme. Also current blood pressure, demographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables were investigated. The genotype distribution did not differ between ESRD patients and controls and there were no significant differences in blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular disease among the three genotypes in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that CYP11B2 polymorphism may be associated with prevalence of ESRD and suggest that CYP11B2 polymorphism may not be a genetic marker for cardiovascular morbidity in Korean ESRD patients.