PURPOSE: Endovascular therapy (ET) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease has increased dramatically in the past decade. ET is currently being performed by different specialists with available resources, with some of these resources being far superior to others, yet there have been no studies comparing the interventional outcomes according to the varying resources. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of ET for superficial femoral artery (SFA) atherosclerosis using a mobile C-arm, in comparison to a historical control group. METHODS: Between March 2009 and December 2010, ET for SFA atherosclerosis was performed in 54 limbs from 47 patients using a mobile C-arm in the operation theater (mobile group). In contrast, a historical group for comparison consisted of 60 patients, for whom ET for SFA atherosclerosis was performed in 76 limbs using a fixed C-arm in the angiographic suite, between July 2003 and May 2008 (fixed group). The outcomes of ET for both groups were retrospectively analyzed by a medical chart review. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in gender, age, risk factors, Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, intervention type, and postoperative blood creatinine levels between the two groups. However, procedural time was statistically higher in the mobile group. Patency rates at 1 year were 68.3% and 68.1% in the fixed and mobile group, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis of 1 year patency rates for TASC A, B lesions and TASC C, D lesions were also similar. CONCLUSION: ET using the mobile C-arm in the operating theater is as effective as using the fixed C-arm, in the treatment of SFA atherosclerosis in terms of the technical success, patency, and early postoperative outcomes.