BACKGROUND: Fungus is the common pathogen of nosocomial infection, and the 4th common pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection. We evaluated the annual occurrence, the relation between fungemia and central venous catheter-related infection, the risk factors and survival rate of fungemia. METHODS: We reviewed medical record of 209 cases with fungemia occurred in the period of from 1992 to 1997 in Severance hospital retrospectively. RESULTS: The annual occurrence of nosocomial fungemia was 3.9, 6.7, 6.7, 7.8, 13.6, 8.0, per 10,000 patient discharges in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997. The species of fungemia wete Candida albicans (47.79o), C. glabrata (12.1%), C. parapsilosis (11.7%), C. tropicalis (11.2/o), C. guilliermondii (1.9fo), C. krusei (1.9%), Rhodotorula species (2.3%), Trichosporon species (1.9%), molds (4.7%). The proportion of definite catheter-related bloodstream infection was 41.6%, probable catheter-related bloodstream infection 28.2%, and the fungemia that was not related with central venous catheter infection was 30.1%. Mortality rate of fungemia was 53.6%, and median survival days were 29 days. Catheter removal and antifungal therapy increased survival rate, but persistent fungemia and thrombocytopenia were poor prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The fungal bloodstream infection is increased and high proportion of fungemia is related to central venous catheter-related infection. Since catheter removal and antifungal therapy have benefit on survival rate, early evaluation of catheter-related infection and antifungal therapy in fungemia patient is recommended.