PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. RESULTS: The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39+/-1.27 (8.24+/-7.22%) and 1.69+/-1.14 mm (10.16+/-6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.