PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to obtain the description of the mandibular bone quality of male and female patients between 40-60 years old and their differences based on mandibular cortical bone thickness measured using Mental Index (MI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty digital panoramic radiographs, which consisted of twenty male and twenty female patients, 40-60 years old, were observed. Mandibular cortical bone thickness was measured using MI on both sides of the mandible. The average MI score of two groups were then assessed using t-sample independent test. RESULTS: There were significant differences of mandibular bone quality based on mandibular cortical bone thickness measurement using MI between male and female patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Mandibular bone quality based on cortical bone thickness measurement using MI of male and female patients indicated a significant difference.