We have determined and analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence of a coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) Korean isolate (CVB3-Korea/97) which has been known as a general human pathogen. The whole genome contains 7,400 nucleotides and has a single large open reading frame with 6,555 nucleotides that encodes a potential polyprotein precursor of 2,185 amino acids. The genome also contains a 5' non-coding region (NCR) of 741 bases and a 3' NCR of 104 bases followed by poly(A) tail. Sequence homologies of nucleotides and deduced amino acids between the CVB3-Korea/97 strain and the prototype (Nancy strain) were 81.7% and 91.5%, respectively. The genes encoding the functional proteins including viral protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase showed higher homology than those encoding the structural proteins. We have further analyzed the sequences of 5' NCR, VP1 and VP2 of CVB3-Korea/97, which are known as cardiovirulent determining factors at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Although the CVB 3-Korea/97 strain was isolated from an aseptic meningitis patient without cardiomyopathy, its 234th nucleotide and 165th amino acid were uracil and Asn as same as those of other cardiovirulent strains one. However, the 155th amino acid of VR1, which closely associated with cardiovirulence, was replaced with Arg155 by single nucleoptide substitution from A2916 to T2916. Moreover, additional amino acid substitutions were observed in the flanking region of Asp155. Taken together, aminoacid(s) substitution in VP1 may play a critical role in determining cardiovirulence of the CVB3-Korea/97 strain rather than individual nucleotide replacements in the 5' NCR and/or an amino acid substitution in VP2.