The primary culture of human nasal epithelial cells was performed using the inferior nasal turbinate tissues, and infected with Hantaan virus to examine the hypothesis of airborne transmission of Hantaan virus in humans. The primary culture cells were identified as epithelial cells by morphologic and immunologic analyses. The viral antigens were detected in the primary human nasal epithelial cells infected with Hantaan virus by immunofluorescence staining. The ICAM-1 induction by Hantaan virus or IFN-gammawas examined in the primary human nasal epithelial cells and human lung fibroblasts (WI-38). Hantaan virus induced the surface ICAM-1 in Wl-38 cells in a time-dependent manner, and IFN-gammainduced the surface ICAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner in HNEC and WI-38 cells. These results revealed that the human nasal epithelial cells are susceptible to Hantaan viral infection supporting the hypothesis of airborne transmission of Hantaan virus in humans. The human lung fibroblasts also might have an important role in the pathogenesis of Hantaan virus through the induction of ICAM-1.