PURPOSE: To investigate the factors associated with the occurrence of and recovery from transient urinary incontinence (TUI) after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2009 to December 2012, 391 consecutive patients treated with HoLEP for benign prostatic hyperplasia were enrolled. Information regarding age, prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine, and operation time was collected. TUI was defined as a patient complaint of urine leakage, regardless of type. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors associated with the occurrence of TUI, and the Kaplan-Meier test was used to analyze the TUI recovery period. RESULTS: TUI after HoLEP occurred in 65 patients (16.6%), 52 patients of whom (80.0%) showed recovery within three months. Stress and urge urinary incontinence and postvoid dribbling occurred in 16 patients (4.1%), 29 patients (7.4%), and 33 patients (8.4%), respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR]=3.494; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.565~7.803; p=0.002) and total operation time (OR=3.849; 95% CI=1.613~9.185; p=0.002) were factors that significantly affected the occurrence of TUI. CONCLUSIONS: TUI, defined as any type of urine leakage, occurred after HoLEP in some patients, most of whom recovered within three months. Stress urinary incontinence occurred in only 4% of patients after HoLEP. Age and total operation time were associated with the occurrence of postoperative TUI.