Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a positive-sense single-stranded small RNA virus (7.2 kbp) in the Picornaviridae family and the genus Enterovirus. The complete genome sequences have recently been analyzed. Phylogeny shows 3 species: HRV-A, B and C. Another new potential species, HRV-D, has been suggested. HRV causes common cold, lower respiratory tract infection and acute virus-associated wheezing illness. HRV is the main triggering factor of asthma and COPD exacerbation. Recent epidemiologic studies suggested that HRV could initiate asthma. Host senses HRV via pattern recognition receptors such as TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, RIG-1 and MDA-5 which play important roles in HRV-induced airway epithelial cell responses. HRV had been known to infect only humans and Chimpanzees because ICAM-1, the receptor for major HRV, showed severe variations among species. Studies on HRV have been performed in vitro using human primary cells or cell-lines as well as in vivo using a human experimental model. The murine models of HRV infection has recently been developed using human ICAM-1 transgenic mice and a using minor group of HRV which uses LDL receptors for entering host epithelium. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms and to develop new therapeutic strategies for common cold, lower respiratory tract infection, acute virus-induced wheezing illness and asthma.