OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to investigate the aluminum concentrations in blood, urine and drinking water, the factors which affect the concentrations and the role of silicon in patients who were taking antacid containing aluminum. METHODS: We selected 122 peptic ulcer patients as cases and 144 healthy examinees as controls. Blood, urine, and drinking water were collected from the each study subject and we measured aluminum concentrations as well as silicon concentrations in the specimens. The factors including silicon affect on the aluminum concentrations were also analyzed. RESULTS: 1. The mean duration of antacid administration was 12 months, and the mean daily and total amount of aluminum administration were 0.9 g and 304 g per each patient, respectively. 2. The blood and urine aluminum concentrations were significantly higher in the case. 3. The blood silicon concentration was significantly lower in the control group, and the urine silicon concentration was significantly higher in the case. 4. Urine aluminum concentration was significantly correlated with blood aluminum concentration (r=0.18), and urine silicon concentration was correlated with blood aluminum (r=0.19) and urine aluminum concentrations (r=0.13). 5. The longer the duration of antacid administration and the larger the total and daily amount of aluminum in the antacid were, the higher urine aluminum and silicon concentrations were, but not to a statistically significant degree. CONCLUSIONS: Blood and urine aluminum concentrations were higher in the ulcer patients. The authors suggest that follow-up studies of the patients who administered antacid with high aluminum content for long duration should be done.