Urinary cadmium is used as a sensitive indicator for internal Cd dose, and increased excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG), beta(2)microglobulin(MG) and total protein are useful indices for renal dysfunction by chronic exposure to Cd. The target group was 184 inhabitant(82 men and 102 women) in an abandoned mine area known as exposure to low level Cd. The control group was took 160 individuals(64 men and 96 women) in Cd not-exposed area. Urinary Cd concentration was significantly higher in the target group than the control. The geometric mean of urinary Cd for male was 2.56ng/l, 2.80ng/g creatinine and 2.50ng/S.G. in the target group and 1.19ng/l, 1.36ng/g creatinine and 1.17ng/S.G. in the control. For female 2.69ng/l, 3.94ng/g creatinine and 2.63ng/S.G. in the target group and 1.27ng/l, 1.97ng/g creatinine and 1.25ng/S.G. in the control, respectively. In addition, urinary Cd of the target group had affected by the period of residence and dietary habit for the rice and the vegetables from the target area. These findings suggest the chronic exposure to Cd of the target population. Mean excretion of urinary NAG, beta(2)MG and total protein were not significant between two groups. In the target group, urinary NAG activity and total protein were significantly correlated with urinary Cd, but beta(2)MG was not related. Urinary excretion of NAG, beta(2)MG and total protein were significantly increased in 10 than in <2 of urinary Cd level. In 2~10 group of urinary Cd level, the excretion of NAG significantly increased while not showed for beta(2)MG. In present study, urinary excretion of NAG was relatively sensitive than beta(2)MG in chronic exposure population to low level Cd.