This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of rock wool fibers(RWFs) such as cell division disturbance, chromosomal and DNA damage, and mutagenicity using cultured cells. RWFs were the man made mineral fibers. In order to find the correlation between the cytotoxicity of RWFs and the phagocytic capacity of cells, the phagocytic processes were observed using scanning electron microscope. Cell division disturbance by RWFs was evaluated by the formation of multinucleated giant cells. The chromosomal damage was evaluated by the micronucleus formation. For the evaluation of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formation was measured utilizing calf thymus DNA. Mutagenicity was determined by the point mutation of HGPRT and the effect of RWFs on cell transformation was also observed. 1. Compared with the results of chrysotile, RWFs were no or little effect on the cell growth according to the results done by the tests of cell proliferation inhibition and relative plating efficiency. 2. The frequency of multinucleated giant cell formation was increased by the treatment of RWFs and it was dose-dependent. However, the effect of RWFs was weaker than that of chrysotile. 3. The number of micronuclei formed in the RWFs treated cells was between those of cells treated with chrysotile and those of untreated cells. 4. The 2 fold increase in the formation of 8-OH-dG in calf thymus DNA was observed in the cells treated with RWFs in the presence of H2O2. On the other hand, chrysotile had no effect on the 8-OH-dG formation. 5. RWFs had no effect on the HGPRT point mutation and cell transformation. These results showed that RWFs could induce chromosomal damage, cell division disturbance and oxidative DNA damage in the RWFs treated cells.