PURPOSE: To demonstrate the superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) in articular cartilage by using ultrasonography (US) and to assess its correlation with histological images. METHODS: In total, 47 regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed from six tibial osteochondral specimens (OCSs) that were obtained after total knee arthroplasty. Ultrasonograms were obtained for each OCS. Then, matching histological sections from all specimens were obtained for comparison with the ultrasonograms. Two types of histological staining were used: Safranin-O stain (SO) to identify glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and Masson's trichrome stain (MT) to identify collagen. In step 1, two observers evaluated whether there was an SHEB in each ROI. In step 2, the two observers evaluated which histological staining method correlated better with the SHEB by using the ImageJ software. RESULTS: In step 1 of the analysis, 20 out of 47 ROIs showed an SHEB (42.6%, kappa=0.579). Step 2 showed that the SHEB correlated significantly better with the topographical variation in stainability in SO staining, indicating the GAG distribution, than with MT staining, indicating the collagen distribution (P<0.05, kappa=0.722). CONCLUSION: The SHEB that is frequently seen in human articular cartilage on high-resolution US correlated better with variations in SO staining than with variations in MT staining. Thus, we suggest that a SHEB is predominantly related to changes in GAG. Identifying an SHEB by US is a promising method for assessing the thickness of articular cartilage or for monitoring early osteoarthritis.