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J Korean Neurol Assoc. 2013 Feb;31(1):8-14. Korean. Original Article.
Kim JY , Kim HJ , Jeon BS .
Department of Neurology, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of nonmotor symptoms (NMS)and alternative therapies (ATs) in Korean PD and to elucidate its association. METHODS: Demographic, social, and motor (Hoehn and Yahr stage; HY stage, motor section of Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale; mUPDRS) and NMS questionnaire were recorded in all PD patients (N=50) without significant cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Mean age and HY stage were 70.1 years and 2.3. Mean total numbers of positive NMS (tNMS) per patient was 12.9 and all patients had at least five NMS (range, 5-25). The most common items were nocturia (82%), constipation (70%) and memory disturbance (66%). Urinary (68%) domain was the most frequently involved. The tNMS was higher in female and in the group with higher mUPDRS score. Sleep and depression/anxiety domains were more involved in women. 63% of patients had experienced ATs and among them 29% of patients used ATs simultaneously. Health related food (32%), herbal medicine (32%), ginseng (32%) and acupuncture (23%) were the most commonly used. There was no association between ATs usage and demographic, social, motor and nonmotor characteristics. Among the ATs users, 20% of patients reported the effectiveness of ATs but the mean ATs costs was 12.4 fold higher than the medical costs. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that mean tNMS is higher in Korean PD patients comparing with other previous studies. Women might be more vulnerable to NMS than men expecially in sleep and depression/anxiety. We couldn't found the associated between usage of ATs and clinical variables including NMS.

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