BACKGROUND: The pain-screening questionnaire is a self-reported description of the intensity and nature of pain. This study aimed to develop the Korean Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire (KNPQ) and to assess its reliability and validity regarding the diagnosis of neuropathic pain. METHODS: Four screening tools and two rating scales were translated and modified to develop the preliminary KNPQ. Following a development phase and a pilot study, we generated the final 25-item version of the KNPQ. Each item was rated on a numerical scale of 0-10. The validation procedure was performed in 62 patients with neuropathic pain (21 with central pain and 41 with peripheral pain) and in 34 patients with nonneuropathic pain. The internal consistency between items was assessed to determine the reliability of the KNPQ, and its concurrent validity was determined by evaluating the relationship between the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and KNPQ scores. RESULTS: The KNPQ was not influenced by age, sex, or pain duration. The 25-item questionnaire demonstrated high internal consistency. The total score of the KNPQ was correlated with the global pain intensity on a VAS. These items were able to differentiate neuropathic pain from nonneuropathic pain with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 44% (when using a cut-off point of 46). CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed KNPQ may be used for the initial screening of neuropathic pain patients. However, it cannot be used to differentiate central neuropathic pain from peripheral neuropathic pain.