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Radiat Oncol J. 2015 Mar;33(1):36-41. English. Original Article.
Kim KS , Kim K , Chie EK , Kim YJ , Yoon JH , Lee HS , Ha SW .
Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Departrment of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of post-treatment intracranial hemorrhage of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 81 patients who have been diagnosed of brain metastases from HCC and underwent surgery, radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) between January 2000 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Intracranial hemorrhage was present in 64 patients (79%) at the time of diagnosis. Median value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was 1,700 ng/mL. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status for 20 patients was greater than 2. Fifty-seven patients underwent WBRT and the others were treated with surgery and/or radiosurgery without WBRT. During follow-up, 12 events of intracranial hemorrhage after treatment were identified. Three-month post-treatment hemorrhage rate was 16.1%. Multivariate analyses revealed that ECOG performance status, AFP, and WBRT were associated with post-treatment hemorrhage (p = 0.013, 0.013, and 0.003, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 3-month post-treatment hemorrhage rate of new lesion was higher in patients treated without WBRT, although statistical significance was not reached. (18.6% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.104). Ten of 12 patients with post-treatment hemorrhage died with neurologic cause. CONCLUSION: WBRT should be considered to prevent post-treatment hemorrhage in the treatment of brain metastases from HCC.

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