Although percutaneous vertebroplasty is a relatively safe procedure, cement leakage into the spinal canal and paravertebral veins may occur. Most patients with cement leakage are asymptomatic. However, it can result in spinal cord compression or pulmonary embolism. Cement-induced thrombosis in the inferior vena cava is a very rare complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty, with only few reports in the literature. We report a case of cement leakage-induced thrombosis in the inferior vena cava in a 72-year-old woman, focusing on multidetector CT findings. On contrast-enhanced CT scan, a persistent hypodense filling defect in the opacified lumen of the inferior vena cava combined with a high density cement cast adjacent to the vertebroplasty area were helpful imaging findings in making the diagnosis of bone cement leakage-induced thrombosis in the inferior vena cava.