BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture is the most frequently reported complication after implant-based breast reconstruction. This study was first undertaken to present our experience with acellular dermal matrix for prevention of capsular contracture in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap, and to assess the final aesthetic outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent immediate latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction in combination with implant and acellular dermal matrix from January 2014 to December 2015. Demographics and clinical characteristics and postoperative complications, especially focused on capsular contracture, were assessed. They were also analyzed as the potential risk factors for the development of capsular contracture. The aesthetic outcome of the overall reconstruction and the final outcome of the inframammary fold were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 30 patients (30 breasts) were reviewed. The mean Baker grades for all 29 breasts (one breast was dropped out due to implant loss), evaluated at one year after reconstruction, was 1.21±0.49 capsular contracture. None of risk factors except seroma/hematoma (P=0.033) were significantly associated with the development of capsular contracture. Overall aesthetic outcome was 8.2±1.2 and aesthetic outcome of the inframammary fold was 3.5±0.6 for physician and 3.4±0.6 for patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have shown the ability of acellular dermal matrix to prevent capsular contracture observed in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap and its use was proven to create superior aesthetic results.