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J Nurs Acad Soc. 1996 Sep;26(3):709-729. Korean. Comparative Study.
So HS , Cho BH , Hong MS .

This study was done to analyze the trends of research on coping in Korea, to suggest future direction, for research on coping, and ultimately to contribute to an increase in explanation of adaptation. This article reviewed 79 nursing research papers on coping done since 1978 by examining them according to the period of publication or presentation, research design, type of subjects, measurement instruments, research for a degree or not, range of reliability, and association of coping and related variables. The results are as follows: The number of studies on coping increased rapidly from the mid -1980's and decreased slowly from the mid 1990's. The maority of the studies were surveys, comparative studies, or correlational studies. The subects of the 46 studies were healthy people, while those in the remaining studies were patients with a variety of illnesses. Thirth-eight studies on coping were done for master's thesis, three for dissertion, and 38 were not degrees. The Bell and Jalowiec coping scales have not been used since the early 1990's. In contrast, Lazarus and Folkman's W.C.C.L. has been used increasingly since that time. The reliabilities of the coping scale were reported in 37 cases and the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .71 to .86. All subjects reported using more problem-oriented coping than emotion-oriented coping in short-term or emotion -oriented coping and healthy groups did more long-term coping. It was difficult to describe consistently the relationship between stress and coping according to the type of coping scale or research subjects, but generally moderate relationships were found. This was due to instrumental problems and no consideration of situational context. The subject group who used more short-term coping and less long-term coping reported poorer mental status, and higher scores in burnout and state anxiey than others. That is, the relationship between stress and adaptation increased the power of explanation with intervening the mediating effect of coping. The association of locus of control, mastery, social support, and self-concept with coping showed positive relationships; those of uncertainty and severity in illness with coping showed negati-verelationships; those of state anxiety and depression with short-term coping were positive, and those of self-esteem with long -term coping or problem -oriented coping were negative. There were significant differences in the scores of types of coping according to religion, level of education, and socio-economic status. That is, Presbyterians and Catholics, those with higher education levels and higher socio-economic status used more long-term or problem-oriented coping. On the basis of the above findings the following recommendations are made: 1. There is a need to test the mediating effect of coping variable in order to clarify the concept. 2. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the patterns of change in coping strategies when stressful events are encountered. 3. It's necessary to develop a reliable and variable measurement tool for coping. 4. There is a need to identify subscales of coping to increase explanation of variance 5. It's necessary to consider personal, situational, and antecedent variables: the characteristics of subject populations, the natures of illness and treatment situations. 6. The power of explanation of studies designed to identify the stress-adaptation process should be increased using the combination model of process-oriented coping and cognitive-structural model.

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