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J Nurs Acad Soc. 1996 Sep;26(3):531-543. Korean. Original Article.
Kim HW , Hong KJ .

This study was done to develop a Maternal Identity Scale for Pregnant Women and to test the validity and reliability of the scale. A convenience sample of 161 pregnant women were asked to complete the MISP questionnaire which consisted of 45 item, this was done from December 20, 1995 to January 15, 1996. The research procedure were as follows. The first step was to identify a conceptual definition of maternal identity using Rubin(1984)'s maternal identity and maternal experience during pregnancy. The second step was to operationalize the maternal identity, that is, perception of image possible of selves as mother, maternal role play by imagination, and the experiences of various emotional responses which are embedded in the mother-fetus dyad. The third step was item development which resulted in 45 items as appropriate measurement of maternal identity are except for the perception of image possible of selves as mother. The result findings were as follows: 1) Four factors for MISP(finally 40 items) were extracted through the principal component analysis and varimax rotation, and these contributed 49.3% of the variance in the total score. All 40 items in the scale loaded above .43 on one of 4 factors. 2) Each factor was named: factor 1 was named maternal role imagery and has 10 items, factor 2 was named happiness and has 11 items, factor 3 was named maternal fetal interaction and has 10 items, and the last factor 4 was named negative emotion and has 9 items. 3) Cronbach's -alpha coefficient for internal consistsncy was .92 for the total 40 items and .89, . 90, .86, .78 for the four subscales in that order. Recommendations are suggested below: 1) The developed MISP be used to assess maternal readiness in pregnancy. 2) Replication study be done to test validity and relaibility. 3) For the overall measure of Maternal Identity in Pregnancy, scale for the perception of image possible of selves as mother, and cognitive domain be reorganized for the maternal identity in pregnancy. 4) It is necessary to identify variables that influences maternal pregnancy. 5) It is necessary to identify that maternal identity in pregnancy is a reliable index of motherhood, to do correlation studies on maternal identity and major maternal variables in maternal transition period, to reoperationalize the maternal identity in postpartum, and finally to designate a longitudinal study of the maternal identity changes or stabilities.

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