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J Nurs Acad Soc. 1992 Sep;22(3):337-351. Korean. Original Article.
Kim MJ .

Nursing as it is practiced and taught, historically has been viewed as natural science. There are new movements to create a paradigm of nursing in the human sciences. A natural science methodologies elicit quantitative data from observable phenomena and reveal is the study of Unitary Man's participative experience in a situation, the simultaneity paradigm. In a theory of nursing rooted in human science assumptions about man and health are synthesized, and the practice of nursing is continuously expanded through research. To find independent nursing interventions especially cognitive nursing intervention models it has been necessary to consult a multitude of journals and text sources for references, and no one nursing textbook can be used in help patients achieve nursing goals. The goals of nursing in the simultaneity paradigm focus on the quality of life from the person's perspective. Cognitive interventions based on the person's perspective were selected from those that colleagues deemed appropriate to nursing and those that were identified in the nursing literature. They were supportive nursing care, reminiscence, meditation, relaxation and imagery. Nurses have been reluctant to make diagnoses, implement actions, and assume responsibility for this actions and this is of concern but can be understood because nurses have had little exposure to action and lack an intervention armamentarium from with which to choose actions to achieve nursing goals. Efforts in nursing education and nursing service are required to remedy this problem. Nurses must be convinced of the challenge and excitement associated with autonomous functioning. It is a characteristic of the true professional. Traditionally, nursing has prescribed on method for handling a situation. Fundamental nursing texts usually only present one way to handle a situation, because alternative interventions to achieve a client goal may be available. Considerably more research is necessary before these can be prescribed. However, unless a first step is taken, progress will not be made. The quality of health care or nursing care is enhanced when nurses transform dilemmas into committed action. This is apparent from widespread experiences of nurses.

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