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J Nurs Acad Soc. 1990 Dec;20(3):307-323. Korean. English Abstract.
Choi YH , Kim MS , Byon YS , Won JS .

This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychological and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang-Nam-Do, Jonal Buk-Do, and Kyung Ki-Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climination functions. Metal-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows : 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliability indicated by a cronbach=0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4,054 in a 5 point likert scale, mental-emotional health status was 3.803 social health status was 2.939 and the average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status ; physical health status was the highest. 3. Educational background, perceived health status, the amount of pocket money were related to physical and mental-emotional health status and family structure was related mental-emotional physical and social health status. Occupation was related to physical and mental-emotional status. Area of residence was related to mental-emotional and social status. Source of living in the expenses was related to physical and mental-emotional health status marital status to mental-emotional and social health status, and the number living in the home physical health status and religion to social health status. The following conclusions were derived from the above results : 1. The health status of Korean was relatively sound but social health status was the most vulnerable. The Social activity for Korean elderly is needed to improve social health. 2. Education background, perceived health status and the amount of pocket money must be considered in the health assessment criteria of the elderly. Family structure, marital status, occupation, residence variables and sources of living expense must also be considered as significant. 3. A health education program based on the education background of the elderly, and provision of an occupational socio-economic welfare policy will be useful in order to increase social health status of Korean elderly.

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