The aim of this investigation was to delineate concepts contributing to the Exercise of Self-Care Agency (E.S.C.A.) Scale developed by Kearney & Fleischer (1979) and to test its construct validity and its predictors. The results are summarized as follows : 1. By means of principal factor analysis and maximal likelihood factor analysis upon data generated from 280 undergraduate students, the factors of Concern about Health Knowledge, Self-Concept, Information-Seeking Behavior, Decision-making and Responsibility, Self-esteem, and Passivity emerged. The total percent of variance explained by the 6 factors was 75.1 % 2. To assess factor independence and instrument homogeneity, correlations among the 6 factors were computed. The correlations ranged from .24 to .46 indicating that the factors and the items were not too similar or redundant. 3. Test-retest reliability of the total scale is r=.70. Cronbach's a coefficient for internal consistency of the total scale is .86 and that of the factors ranged from .750 to .661 (only factor 6 .497). 4. In additional analysis of the Exercise of self-Care Agency Scale in relationship to Multiple Health Locus of Control, Family Environmental Scale, and Cornell Medical Index using stepwise multiple regression, the Internal Health Locus of Control Score predicted 21.8%(F=53.34, P=.0001), Family Environmental Score 8.3 %(F=22.59, P=.0001), Modified Cornell Medical Index Score 5.4%(F=15.74, P=. 0001) of the score of the E.S.C.A.