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J Nurs Acad Soc. 1973 Dec;3(3):119-132. Korean. Original Article.
Choi KJ .
Department of Nursing, College of Nursing Ewha Womans University, Korea.

This study observed on habitual methods of toilet training for infants and toddlers in Korea thru 300 mothers at four medical institutions (Ewha Woman's University Hospital, Ewha Maternal and Child Health Center, Severance Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital) with a design to analyze beginning time, duration of period, methods employed, motives, equipments used, special terminology used for the subject training. The main purpose of this study was to generalize the proper methods of toilet training, and also to contribute a better psychological education for the mother and child. The results obtained from this study were as follows; 1. Majority of (67,3%) observed were in the age category between 30 and 40 year and dominant numbers (64.7%) were housewives with high level of education and from midelle class family background. 2. In the most cases (85%), toilet training was carried out by mothers(includinx wives who had a job) while more than half of mothers (53.7%) maintained their important motive for (lie training was "due to having high regard for cleanliness" 3. As for the time of beginning toilet training, finding indicated that starting period was decided (70%) at inconsiderate descretion of each mother, whereas, only minority group (30%) represents the cases where mother started the training when they consider the child was physically and psychologically ready. Also greater number (77.7%) started bladder training prior to that of bowel. 4. It is noticeable that in course of training a large number of mothers (48.3%) applied strict training method when the child proper toileting, and the more rigid and strict in the training, the more malformation of personality of the infant and toddler were seen after the training period (P< 0.01). 5. Over the half of the total cases denoted (bowel 54.3%, bladder 67.7%) starting period before one year and in most cases (bowel 79.3%, bladder 72%)the training was accomplished within 12 month, and therefore it was noted that earlier start(before 1 year) shortened the training period (with 12 month). There was no significant difference between male and female infants in both starting period and duration of period in bladder training, however, in bowel training there was a tendency that female started earlier(7-12 months needed, 51.4%) than the male (13-18 months needed, largest number 41.4%), and also in cases of female the period for needed for training were shorter than the cases of male. 6. Many a number (bowel 50.3%, bladder 97.7%) employed the method of continuous toileting at regular interval in accordance with that of child's habit formed before training. Equipment used were variOU kinds, however, pieces of paper for male (45. 5%) and pics pot or bedpot (42. 3%) for female were common, on the other hand "Eung-ga" for defecation (52. 3%) and "Shii" for the urination (95.3%) were most standard expression that used during the training period.

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