Globally, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness, that diminishes quality of life. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of DR, and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 478 diabetic patients in a referral center in Fars province, Iran. The mean±standard deviation age of the participants was 56.64±12.45 years old and DR prevalence was 32.8%. In multivariable analysis, lower education levels (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 0.76), being overweight (aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.83) or obese (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.26), diabetes duration of 10 to 20 years (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.73) and over 20 years (aOR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.97 to 10.68), receiving insulin (aOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.10), and having chronic diseases (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.85) were significantly associated with DR. In conclusion, longer diabetes duration and obesity or having chronic diseases are strongly associated with DR suggesting that control of these risk factors may reduce both the prevalence and impact of retinopathy in Iran.