Intraoperative identification and localization of parathyroid glands are crucial step in preventing postoperative hypocalcemia during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. If there is a method to predict the parathyroid's location rather than detecting and verifying with naked eye, it would make the operator easier to find and identify the parathyroid. Recently, near-infrared light imaging technologies have been introduced in the fields of thyroid and parathyroid surgery to predict the localization of the parathyroid. These are being conducted in two ways: autofluorescence imaging with a unique intrinsic fluorophore in the parathyroid tissues and fluorescence imaging with external fluorescence materials specially absorbed into parathyroid tissues. We are suggest that parathyroid glands can be detected by surgeon with NIR autofluorescence imaging even if they are covered by fibrofatty tissues before they are detected by surgeon's naked eye. These novel techniques are very useful to identify and preserve parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy. In this article, we reviewed the latest papers that describe autofluorescence imaging and exogenous ICG fluorescence imaging of parathyroid glands during thyroid and parathyroid surgery.