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J Stroke. 2018 Sep;20(3):321-331. English. Multicenter Study.
Toyoda K , Yamagami H , Koga M .
Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.
Division of Stroke Care Unit, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

Development of direct oral anticoagulants and their antidotes has led to the need to reconsider the eligibility of acute stroke patients who have been taking oral anticoagulants for intravenous thrombolysis. Officially authorized Japanese guidelines on this issue were revised twice at the time of approval for clinical use of direct oral anticoagulants and idarucizumab, a specific reversal agent for dabigatran. A unique recommendation in the latest Japanese clinical guides was that thrombolysis can be recommended if the time of the last dose of direct oral anticoagulants exceeds 4 hours and if commonly available anticoagulation markers are normal or subnormal, i.e., international normalized ratio of prothrombin time < 1.7 and activated partial thromboplastin time < 1.5 times the baseline value (≤40 seconds only as a guide). These criteria are partly supported by the findings of domestic multicenter and single-center surveys that symptomatic or asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage following thrombolysis was rare under the conditions of the criteria. Even for dabigatran users, stroke thrombolysis can be considered without pretreatment by idarucizumab if patients meet the above criteria. If not, direct mechanical thrombectomy can be considered without pretreatment by idarucizumab or thrombolysis, and use of idarucizumab, followed immediately by thrombolysis, can be considered only when thrombectomy cannot be quickly performed. These clinical guides are practical and to some extent economical, but they have some limitations, including lack of corroborating information from sufficient numbers of relevant cases. The guides will be further modified based on the results of future research.

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