OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal endometrial cancer patients without bone metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the BMD of spinal bone and the femur in 26 endometrial cancer patients and 32 control women. All of the patients and control women had reached their menopause. The control group was treated with benign uterine myoma whose age and body mass index are consistent with the case group. All BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Among the serum calcium concentrations and bone markers, alkaline phosphatase level was higher in endometrial cancer group than in controls. BMD of 4th lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in endometrial cancer patients (T-score: -0.63+/-0.77) than in controls (T-score: 0.88+/-1.83). Serum calcium concentration was higher in stage I patients (9.63+/-0.31 mg/dL) than that in stage II-III patients (9.26+/-0.31 mg/dL). BMD of 1st vertebra was lower in stage I patients (T-score: -1.80+/-0.97) than that in stage II-III patients (T-score: -0.60+/-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: We observed the increase of bone turnover along with the decrease of BMD in endometrial cancer which is estrogen dependent malignancy. Bone turnover increase and BMD decrease was even more distinct in early stage of endometrial cancer than later stages. A prospective randomized trial in large scale is warranted to elucidate the relation between the factors affecting bone density in endometrial cancer.