Rare cases of a congenital absence of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) have been reported, and its incidence is unknown. In a literature review of the congenital absence of the LHBT, only 1 case was associated with posterior shoulder instability and severe posterior glenoid dysplasia. This paper reports the first case of a patient with a bilateral congenital absence of the LHBT with posterior shoulder instability without glenoid dysplasia or posterior glenoid tilt. The patient experienced a traffic accident while holding the gear stick with his right hand. After the accident, a posteroinferior labral tear with paralabral cysts was detected on the magnetic resonance images. The congenital absence of the LHBT was assumed to have affected the posterior instability that possibly increased the susceptibility to a subsequent traumatic posterior inferior labral tear. This case was identified as a posterior inferior tear caused by a traumatic ‘gear stick injury’.