PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the data comprehensively including not only the clinical and radiographic outcomes but some parameters related to operation between the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique and intramedullary nailing (IMN) for treatment of segmental tibia shaft fractures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 31 patients (mean age, 49.3 years, range, 27-74 years), with a mean follow-up of 14.1 months (range, 12-19 months) with acute segmental tibial fractures (AO 42-C2) who underwent either surgical treatment of MIPO or IMN. In accordance with the Gustilo-Anderson classification, 11 were type I, 5 were type II, and 15 were type III. Initial compartment syndrome was confirmed in 2 cases. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the patient demographic data between the two groups. The time to definitive fixation was longer in the MIPO group (mean 13.7±10.9 days; range, 2-27) than in the intramedullary group (mean 5.4±9.6 days; range, 0-35) with statistically significant difference (p=0.002). Bony union was observed in most of cases but except 5 cases of nonunion were diagnosed (3 in the MIPO vs 2 in IMN, p=0.188). The average bone healing time was 27.1 weeks (10 to 56 weeks) in MIPO group and 23.2 weeks (13 to 66 weeks) in IMN group, respectively (p=0.056). Overall complications were 5 cases in MIPO group and 2 cases in the IMN group. Difference in LEFS was not statistically significant between both groups (p=0.824). CONCLUSION: This study showed that segmental tibia shaft fractures treated with both MIPO and intramadullary nailing was challenging with relatively high complication rate. A well planned sequential strategy with keeping the soft tissue and personality of fracture in mind is utmost significant as much as the choice of surgical modalities.