Violent or severe persistent coughing is rarely associated with rib fracture. We report a rare case of a cough-induced rib fracture in a patient without any traumatic history or any other underlying disease. A 32-year-old female presented to the emergency department complaining of having had right-sided pleuritic chest pain for 5 days. She had a background of an 8-week coughing illness. A posteroanterior view of the chest radiograph showed no definite fractured line. Chest computed tomography revealed a subtle break cortical line of the 7th rib in the right-sided chest wall. Early identification of a cough-induced fracture of the rib by using computed tomography may avoid unnecessary further work-ups including laboratory examination and may lead to appropriate discharge instructions including rest and reassurance. The clinical presentations and radiologic findings of rib fractures caused by coughing are presented along with a review of the literature.