Patient expectations for specialized medical care have spawned fellowship programs that require additional subspecialty training after residency training completion. The present study assessed the curricula and training environment adequacy of fellowship programs as perceived by current trainees and identified improvement areas for South Korea's overall fellowship program. A questionnaire was distributed to 1,764 fellows training at 6 university hospitals in Seoul, Korea during October 2014. From a return rate of 33.1%, 26.2% (403 responses) of all questionnaires distributed were compete enough to include in the analysis. Fellows participating in the survey were enrolled in fellowship programs with occupational aspirations of professorship and academic aspirations of subspecialty exploration. Nevertheless, more than half of the participating fellows did not have a clear understanding of their program's objectives. Many hoped for reduced clinical hours, increased research time allowance, and higher pay compared to current training environment and salary. The fellows' satisfaction with their program's curriculum and training environment was above 3 points on a Likert scale of 1 to 5. Receiving a training objective and financial support for academic activities by the training institution were factors influencing fellows' satisfaction level regarding both the curriculum and training environment. Clearly defined program objectives, a specialized curriculum for fellows, improved working conditions, and reflection on medical workforce policies are imperative for the advancement of Korean fellowship programs.