In a modern medical delivery system, it is very difficult to provide adequate, timely, and equitable medical care for severely injured patients. Trauma is a leading cause of deaths under the age of 40 and a source of expensive socioeconomic losses in Korea. Korean government has been making a major effort to establish a trauma system since 2000, but inadequacies of the current trauma system still result in many preventable deaths from accidental injuries. The designation and support program for regional trauma centers is the first step in a national plan for trauma system development. At present, there are 9 regional trauma centers and 7 candidates for trauma centers. Regional trauma centers must play a key role in a regionally inclusive trauma system that integrates emergency medical services systems and healthcare delivery systems to deliver optimal medical care for injured patients.