Understanding the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction in the elderly is necessary for the adequate management of lower urinary tract dysfunction, as aging causes anatomical and functional changes in the lower urinary tract. While epithelium atrophy of genitourinary organs and detrusor muscle changes occur in elderly women, due to estrogen decline, prostate enlargement may lead to bladder outlet obstruction and wall thickening in elderly men. Urodynamic changes that occur with aging include bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor overactivity and underactivity, decreased bladder compliance, and detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility. Moreover, impaired mobility, central nervous system diseases, non-genitourinary comorbidities, and various medications can also influence lower urinary tract function. Among these age-associated multifactorial conditions, adequate differentiation and management of the factors responsible for lower urinary tract dysfunction is of paramount importance in elderly patients.