Primary care physicians who can deliver high quality primary care services are essential for strengthening the primary health care system. In Korea, primary care was regarded as substandard services practiced by any medical doctor without postgraduate education in primary care. The current and future health care systems are challenged by increasing complexity and co-morbidity and healthcare costs in medical care. The developed countries are preparing for the future by increasing support for basic, postgraduate, and continuing medical education in primary care. To strengthen the primary care in Korea, basic medical education programs should require experience in primary care clinics with a teaching and education function. Postgraduate primary care medical education must be enhanced to be qualified to practice in the community. The recognition of the importance of primary care and the need for changes in the current education and healthcare system among medical professionals and other stakeholders and support systems such as legislation and finance for primary care medical education.