Pediatric brain tumors present a tremendous challenge to physicians due to their diverse biologic behavior and the developing nervous system. Therefore, flexible and tailored treatment plans are required. Radiation therapy has played an important role in pediatric brain tumors and treatment results have improved. However, to reduce late radiation effects, the modification of the radiation dose and volume with intensified chemotherapy or delay of radiotherapy is the concept of current protocols. With the results of many clinical trials, the understanding of radiation-induced neurotoxicity has progressed, and there have been technical advances in the field of radiotherapy such as image-guided radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. To achieve disease control as well as functional outcomes for children with brain tumors, further studies using high precision radiotherapy combined with other modalities will be needed.